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Canadian Gold Maple Leaf - From the Royal Canadian Mint, Canadian Gold Maple Leafs are one of the purest gold bullion coins available in the world today. They contain .9999 fine 24-karat gold. The Royal Canadian Mint was the first mint to produce a 24 karat gold coin. The Gold Maple Leaf comes in five sizes; one ounce, half ounce, quarter ounce, one-tenth ounce and one-twentieth ounce.

Canadian Silver Maple Leaf - The Canadian Silver Maple Leaf coins have been minted annually since 1988. The Canadian Maple Leaf silver bullion coin has been one of the most popular silver bullion coins in the world. Each coin has the phrase Fine Silver 1 oz Argent Pur stamped across the bottom on the reverse side.

Carat - A carat is a unit of mass equal to 200 mg, and is used for measuring gemstones such as diamonds. Often confused with "karat" which is used to measure the purity of gold.

Cast Bars - Have a lower quality finish and are produced by pouring molten precious metal directly into a mold. These are sometimes referred to as poured bars versus commercial bars.

Central Bank - A central bank is also known as a reserve bank or monetary authority. It is a government institution that usually issues currency and regulates the money supply along with establishing interest rates within a particular country.

Chinese Gold Panda - First introduced in 1982, the Chinese Panda gold bullion coin has been minted yearly ever since. Only gold mined in China is used for these coins. Several mints across this large country produce the Gold Panda, but unlike coins minted in the United States, there are no visible signs to identify where a particular coin is minted. In 2016 the coin was changed from one troy ounce (31.1 grams) in size to (30 grams) to conform to the metric system. The Chinese Gold Panda is a 24-karat coin and comes in five sizes; one ounce, half ounce, quarter ounce, one-tenth ounce and one-twentieth ounce.

Chinese Silver Panda - Chinese Silver Pandas were first introduced in 1983. Up until 1989, the Chinese Silver Panda was only minted in Shanghai, but as there popularity grew production was expanded to include Shenzhen and Shenyang. Today, the Chinese Pandas are revered by many around the world and up until 2015 were 31.1 grams or one troy ounce. In 2016 the coin was changed to 30 grams to conform to the metric system.

Chip-Gold - Consists of small ingots (1-5 grams in size) in certified packaging the size of a credit card.

CME Group Inc. - Chicago Mercantile Exchange - is the world's largest futures exchange company.

Clad or Cladding - A method used to bond two metals together to create legal tender coins, such as copper and nickel for the state quarter or copper and zinc to produce the Lincoln penny.

Coining Press - The name of the machine that strikes coins.

COMEX - Is a division of the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX), the worlds largest physical commodities futures exchange.

Commodity - Raw materials that can be bought and sold such as: gold, silver, corn, coffee, sugar or wheat.

Contango - Is a situation in which the futures price of a commodity is higher than the expected spot price. It describes an upward sloping curve for futures prices over time. This is the opposite effect of what is known as backwardation.

Crown Gold - Crown gold is an alloy of gold and copper amounting to 22 karats, or 91.667% gold with the remainder being copper. Crown gold came about during the time of Henry VIII, where coin manufacturing was regulated to change the original composition of the gold sovereign from its original 23 karats, to the current 22-karat gold composition. This was partly due to the coin being too soft for commercial use, often wearing off long before its time. However Henry VIII was infamous for 'debasing" the currency by melting down old coin, adding some base metal and creating more coins of the same face value form the same amount of gold. Today, any gold bullion coin that is 22-karat is considered crown gold such as the American Gold Eagle and South African Krugerrand.

Cu - Is the chemical element symbol for copper on the periodic table.

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